Suffixes of Singular and Plural Nouns

 

There are three ways that nouns have singular and plural forms.  They can add to the singular form as in haddeti ‘root’ or hiyeni ‘rope’.  They can add to the plural form as in ciaŋi ‘animals’.  They can also add to both the singular and plural form as in hidoŋ ‘drum’ and doŋi ‘drums’.

 

Three ways of forming singular and plural nouns
Prefix or suffix Singular Root Plural
-ti/ haddeti hadde hadde root
hi-/ hiyeni yeni yeni rope, trap
/-i ciaŋ ciaŋ ciaŋi animal (general)
hi-/-i hidoŋ -doŋ- doŋi drum

 

The following are the most common singular suffixes. The number of nouns in the dictionary with each suffix is given on the left.

 

Number Suffix Singular Plural
29 -i/ fofoŋi fofoŋ cactus, tree type
21 -ti/ haddeti hadde root
2 -o/ morwo moru stone
2 -oi/ hoitoi hoit bone

 

There is also one prefix hi- that can be added to singular nouns.

 

Number Prefix Singular Plural  
3 hi-/ hiyeni yeni rope, trap

 

The following are the most common plural suffixes.

 

Number Suffix Singular Plural  
49 /-i bel beli stripe
22 /-a fetek feteha fish spear
21 /-o moloŋ moloŋo baboon
10 /-jin hofwo hofwojin flour
8 /-n tutunyo tutunyon heel
9 /-ha loyiri loyiriha spirit
6 /-ho igolo igoloho bell
4 /-ta huŋu huŋuta knee
4 /-ok doŋe doŋiok hill, mountain
4 /-aha logule loguliaha elbow
3 /-ra halasi halasira brother
2 /-si hoo hosi head
2 /-sen iŋwe iŋwesen crying one, baby
3 /-sin bula bulasin cow stable
2 /-to sali salito cooking place
2 /-in maŋat maŋatin camp, platform
2 /-ite honyek honyehite eye
2 /-e hotonye hotonyie mother

 

The following are the most common singular and plural combinations.

 

Number Prefix, suffix Singular Plural
3 hi-/-si hiŋa ŋasi year
2 hi-/-i hidoŋ doŋi drum
3 -i/-o tafeŋi tafioŋo guinea pig
2 -i/-ok ŋaini ŋainok girl, daughter
2 -e/-a hamuhe hamuha shoe

 

There are also some nouns that only differ by tone in singular and plural form. In these nouns, a double (long) vowel can be used to show the difference between singular and plural forms.

 

Number Singular Plural  
3 Tone/Tone yani (Low) yanii (High) tree